## Arity

The number of arguments a function takes. This can be a fixed number or variable number of arguments. Simple polymorphism can also be used to have one function take different numbers of arguments.

``````(defn single-arity [argument]
(str "I take 1 argument only"))

(defn triple-arity [argument1 argument2 argument3]
(str "I take 3 arguments only"))

(defn multi-arity
([argument]
(str "I match 1 argument only"))
([argument1 argument2]
(str "I match when 2 arguments are used")))

(defn variable-arity [argument & more-arguments]
(str "I assign the first argument to argument,
all other arguments to more-arguments"))
``````

## Higher Order Functions

A function for which both the input and the output are functions.

``````let greet = (name) => () => `Hello \${name}!`;
``````
``````greet("HOF")(); // Hello HOF!
``````

## Partial

The process of getting a function with lesser arity compared to the original function by fixing the number of arguments is known as partial application.

``````let sum = (a, b) => a + b;

// partially applying `a` to `40`
let partial = sum.bind(null, 40);

// Invoking it with `b`
partial(2); //=> 42
``````

## Currying

The process of converting a function with multiple arity into the same function with less arity.

``````let sum = (a,b) => a+b;

let curriedSum = function(a) {
return function(b) {
return a + b;
};
};

curriedSum(40)(2) // 42.
``````

## Purity

A function is said to be pure if the return value is only determined by its input values, without any side effects.

``````let greet = "yo";

greet.toUpperCase(); // YO;

greet // yo;
``````

## Idempotency

A function is said to be idempotent if it has no side-effects on multiple executions with the the same input parameters.

`f(f(x)) = f(x)`

`Math.abs(Math.abs(10))`

## Functor

Structure that can be mapped over.

Simplest functor in javascript is an `Array`

``````[2,3,4].map( function(n) {
return n + 2;
}); // [4,6,8]
``````

## Referential Transparency

An expression that can be replaced with its value without changing the behaviour of the program is said to be referential transparent.

Say we have function greet:

``````let greet = () => "Hello World!";
``````

Any invocation of `greet()` can be replaced with `Hello World!` hence greet is referential transparent.

## Lazy evalution

aka call-by-need is an evaluation machanism which delays the evaluation of an expression until its value is needed.

``````let rand = function*() {
while(1<2) {
yield Math.random();
}
}
``````
``````let randIter = random();
randIter.next(); // Each exectuion gives a random value, expression is evluated on need.
``````