work in progress
As Spacemacs is built on Emacs, its worth spending a little time getitng uses to working with Emacs.
Here is a short summary of what you need to know. For more details use the built in docs with
M-x helm-spacemacs or
M-m h SPC.
emacs as a command line or a desktop icon.
The 'meta' key is usually the 'Alt' or 'Start Menu' key on your keyboard.
C-<char> : control + <char> M-<char> : meta + <char> SPC : space RET : return / enter DEL : delete or backspace ESC : escape; ESC <char> is the same as M-<char> buffer : Everything you use, edit or read in emacs. This can be an open file, the results of a compilation, your mail and several other things, like e.g. a shell window. mark : It is a position in a buffer, that is pushed in a special stack, when jumping in the buffer etc. It can be pushed manually. mode : Every buffer has a mode. A mode can have special functions, colouring, indentions etc. minibuffer : The line at the bottom, where you can enter commands after typing M-x. Most of these commands can be invoked by pressing *lot of* keys, but don't worry... from now on, I'm going to introduce some of these functions, with the actual command name in round brackets. point : the actual cursor position
Managing files, buffers and windows
C-x C-f (find-file) : opens a file C-x 4 C-f (find-file-other-window) : opens a file in the next window C-x k (kill-buffer) : closes the current buffer C-x C-c (save-buffers-kill-emacs) : asks whether it should save your files and exits C-x C-s (save-buffer) : saves the current buffer C-x C-w (write-file) : saves in a file of your choice C-x C-b (list-buffers) : lists and manages all open buffers, press ? for help C-x b (switch-to-buffer) : changes the current buffer C-x 4 b (switch-to-buffer-other-window) : changes the next window's buffer C-x 2 (split-window-vertically) : splits the current window vertically in half C-x 3 (split-window-horizontally): splits the current window horizontally in half C-x 1 (delete-other-windows) : closes every but the current window C-x 0 (delete-window) : closes the current window C-x o (other-window) : switches to the next window
C-SPC (set-mark-command) : sets the mark where the cursor is C-w (kill-region) : cuts the region from the mark till point to the clipboard M-w (kill-ring-save) : copies the region from the mark till point to the clipboard C-y (yank) : pastes from the clipboard C-a (beginning-of-line) : positions the cursor to the beginning of the line C-e (end-of-line) : positions the cursor to the end of the line C-t (transpose-chars) : swaps the last two characters M-t (transpose-words) : swaps the last two words C-x C-t (transpose-lines) : swaps the last two lines
Search and replace
If the search string contains uppercase letters, it will be case sensitive. Case sensitivity can be toggled with M-c during search in newer versions.
C-s (isearch-forward) : searches forward C-r (isearch-backward) : searches backward M-% (query-replace) : replaces a string wherever it occurs with another, and asks for permission everytime (replace-string) : replaces a string wherever it occurs with another
Other useful things
(set-variable) : sets the value of a variable C-h v (describe-variable) : displays the current value and the meaning of a variable C-h m (describe-mode) : describes the current mode and lists its functions and key combinations C-h f (describe-function) : explains what a function does C-g (keyboard-quit) : exits from the minibuffer C-h ? (help-for-help) : gives a help for using help commands C-_ (undo) : undoes the last change (man) : invokes the manual in the next window
||Convert region to lower case|
||Convert region to upper case|
||Capitalize the following word|
||Convert following word to upper case|
||Convert following word to lower case|
** The keybinding
M-l is bound to
markdow-demote in spacemacs
The ~/.emacs file
You can assign hot-keys for frequently used commands:
"(global-set-key key 'command)", e.g. I recommend the following:
(global-set-key "\C-cr" 'revert-buffer) ; C-c r reverts the file from disk (global-set-key [f12] 'compile) (global-set-key [f10] 'shell) (global-set-key [end] 'end-of-buffer) ; only for the new emacs (global-set-key [home] 'beginning-of-buffer) ; only for the new emacs
Mode-specific indention: TAB (indent-relative) : indents the current line C-M-\ (indent-region) : indents the selected region Modes are automatically entered, e.g. when you open a file of a known extension. To force a mode-change, you can type these: (latex-mode) : enters LaTeX mode (c++-mode) : enters C++ mode (ada-mode) : enters Ada mode (irchat) : enters IRC mode (IRChat 2.4+ needed) (rmail) : enters mail mode (gnus) : enters news-reading mode (tcl-mode) : enters TCL mode
I advise to use IRChat in a new frame (i.e. in another window): (new-frame) : opens a new window (only in X/Windows)
(shell) : starts a terminal in the window (ediff) : compares two files and makes changes (gdb) : runs the GNU Debugger
Simple editing (2)
M-PgUp (scroll-other-window-down) : scrolls up the next window M-PgDn (scroll-other-window) : scrolls down the next window C-x C-SPC (pop-global-mark) : pops the top mark from the stack, and moves the cursor there C-x C-x (exchange-point-and-mark) : exchanges the mark with cursor position C-x r SPC (point-to-register) : stores the buffer & cursor position to a register C-x r j (jump-to-register) : jumps to a previously stored buffer/position. M-D (kill-word) : cuts from point until the next whitespace character M-DEL (backward-kill-word) : cuts from the last whitespace character until point C-k (kill-line) : cuts the line from point C-x r k (kill-rectangle) : cuts the rectangle defined by the mark as upper left and point as lower right corner to the clipboard C-x r y (yank-rectangle) : pastes a rectangle M-c (capitalize-word) : capitalizes the word under cursor M-l (downcase-word) : changes the word to lowercase M-u (upcase-word) : changes the word to uppercase M-/ (dabbrev-expand) : tries to complete the word you're writing with a word occuring in one of the buffers; it tries another completion when repeated (iso-accents-mode) : turns on/off flying accents (',~,^)
Search and replace (2)
C-x n n (narrow-to-region) : temporarily crops the buffer to the selected region C-x n w (widen) : restores the un-cropped buffer C-M-% (query-replace-regexp) : replaces a regexp wherever it occurs with a string, and asks for permission everytime (replace-regexp) : replaces a regexp wherever it occurs with a string (occur) : lists all occurences of search string (find-name-dired) : searches for a file with the specified name (find-grep-dired) : searches for a file that contains the specified string
Fun things to do
(gomoku) : emacs plays gomoku with you (blackbox) : a nice logical game (dunnet) : a hilarious interactive fiction (malyon) : a z-code player; you can download tons of IF games and this library at http://www.ifarchive.org/ (calendar) : a calendar that tells you everything you want to know about any day and also provides a diary - press ? for commands
Describe a Function
Display the full documentation of an elisp function.
Use one of the above keybindings and then type the name of the function you wish to describe.
Did you know?
- You can complete minibuffer commands with TAB. If you press it twice, completions appear in the next window.
- You can hide most of the 'information' buffers (like info, man, completions, help etc.) with q.
- If you press enter on a directory when typing an address in the minibuffer, a friendly navigator appears.